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It replaced the Landesliga Berlin as the fourth tier of the German league system in Berlin; the Landesliga had in the previ Map of the five German Regionalligas from to The —65 Regionalliga was the second Regionalliga season.
The five league champions and the runners-up from the west, south, southwest and north then entered a promotion play-off to determine the two clubs to move up to the Bundesliga for the next season.
North The —65 season saw two new clubs in the league, SC Göttingen 05 and Rasensport Harburg, both promoted from the Amateurliga while no club had been relegated from the Bundesliga to the league.
Eintracht Mahlsdorf is a German football club from the eastern city district of Mahlsdorf in Berlin. History Eintracht Mahlsdorf was initially established in as a gymnastics club by local youth, but not formally registered until the following year.
Football was popular within the club from its earliest days and a football department was organized in with the team was taking part in established local competition by World War I resulted in play being suspended in most parts of the country and not resumed until In many of Eintracht's footballers abandoned the lilac-and-white to play in the black-and-yellow of newly formed Adler Mahlsdorf.
With the rise to power of the Nazis in the s, many clubs, including Eintracht and Adler, were disbanded and their memberships organized into sports associations sanctioned by the regime.
Prior to the isolation of East Berlin from th The Oberliga Berlin English: Premier league Berlin , sometimes also referred to as Stadtliga Berlin English: City league Berlin  or Vertragsliga Berlin English: Contract league Berlin  was the highest level of the German football league system in the city of West Berlin in Germany from until the formation of the Bundesliga in It was by far the smallest of the five Oberligas.
Overview The league was created in , incorporating clubs from all four sectors of the allied-occupied Berlin.
It replaced the Gauliga Berlin-Brandenburg as the highest league in the region. In its first year, it was staged in four groups with the winner of each group taking part in a finals tournament.
In , three clubs from each of those four groups went to form the single-division, twelve team, Oberliga Berlin. Alongside the Oberliga Berlin, four other Oberligas were formed in Germany in those years: The Gauliga Berlin-Brandenburg was the highest football league in the provinces of Brandenburg and Berlin in the German state of Prussia from to Shortly after the formation of the league, the Nazis reorganised the administrative regions in Germany, and the Gaue Brandenburg and Berlin replaced the Prussian provinces.
It replaced the Oberliga as the highest level of play in German football competitions. The Gauliga Berlin-Brandenburg was established with twelve clubs, ten from Berlin and two from Brandenburg.
The Gauliga replaced as such the Oberliga Berlin-Brandenburg, the highest league in the region until then.
No club reached a German championship or cup final. After Hertha BSC Berlin having played in a record six successive championship finals from to , this uns It began on 29 April and ended on 5 August Five teams, one from each regional federation, competed in the tournament during three rounds.
Retrieved 22 September Many clubs circumvented the strict financial limits then in place in German football, and it became common practice for clubs to make payments to players or their agents in excess of the limits set by the DFB in an attempt to gain a competitive edge.
In addition, some clubs paid players from competing sides to underperform in key matches. The scandal came to light in February , when the DFB's auditor found discrepancies in the accounts of the Hertha Berlin club that were quickly identified as illegal player payments.
Hertha's position in the economic rough and tumble of German football was weakened by the city of Berlin's dangerous political situation as an isolated enclave in the middle of the Soviet-occupied East Germany during the Cold War.
Many players did not wish to play in Ber Minerva 93 Berlin is a German association football club from the district of Moabit in the city of Berlin.
Minerva remained a first division club for most for the next 50 years. After being relegated in , the team re-appeared in the Berliner Meisterschaft in A unified Berlin-Brandenberg first division began play with the —12 season and Minerva enjoyed their best finish to date with a 3rd-place result in the leagu The —09 season of the NOFV-Oberliga was the first season of the league at tier five V of the German football league system after the introduction of the 3.
The club disappeared i Map of the five German Oberligas to The —59 Oberliga was the fourteenth season of the Oberliga, the first tier of the football league system in West Germany.
The five league champions and the runners-up from the west, south, southwest and north then entered the German football championship which was won by Eintracht Frankfurt.
It was Frankfurt's sole national championship win. Pauli on 4 March Retrieved 7 September The —76 season was the first time Tennis Borussia Berlin played in the 2.
Bundesliga, the second highest tier of the German football league system. After 38 league games, Tennis Borussia finished top of the division and were promoted back to the Bundesliga after one season as league champions.
Norbert Stolzenburg scored 27 of the club's 86 league goals and in doing so, became the top scorer of the —76 2. Märkische Allgemeine in German.
Retrieved 31 December External links Ümit Ergirdi at fussballdaten. Frank-Michael Marczewski born 30 April is a former professional German footballer.
References "Marczewski, Frank-Michael" in German. Retrieved 28 July External links Frank-Michael Marczewski at fussballdaten.
Ayhan Gezen born 23 June is a Turkish-German former footballer. References "Gezen, Ayha" in German. Retrieved 28 May External links Ayhan Gezen at fussballdaten.
Olaf Kapagiannidis born 11 June in Berlin-Spandau is a former professional German footballer. Kapagiannidis made 50 appearances in the 2.
References "Steckbrief — Olaf Kapagiannidis". Retrieved 8 November External links Olaf Kapagiannidis at fussballdaten. It began on 1 April and ended on 29 December In the final Bayern Munich defeated Fortuna Düsseldorf 1 — 0, thereby winning their first title.
Archived from the original on 4 October Retrieved 24 September The Tschammerpokal was the 6th season of the annual German football cup competition.
FC Nürnberg 2—1 after extra time. The Promotion to the 2. Bundesliga was an end-of-season competition, held annually to determine the clubs that were promoted from the Amateurligas, later the Amateur Oberligas to the 2.
It was necessary because there were more third division champions then promotion spots available. Originally there were fifteen Amateurligas which were reduced to eight Amateur Oberligas in From the 2.
Bundesliga was reduced to one single league. After the introduction of the Regionalliga in , the promotion round was greatly reduced in length, generally only involving two teams.
Eventually, after , all promotion spots to the 2. Bundesliga were direct with no deciders necessary. Since the season, after the introduction of the 3.
Liga, a promotion round was reintroduced. Leagues Tier two Originally, there were two 2. Bundesligas, the second tier of the German football league system, these being: Bundesliga Nord In Retrieved 23 March External links Sven Kretschmer at fussballdaten.
Wolfgang Schilling born 9 June , died 30 March  was a professional German footballer. Schilling made appearances in the 2. Bundesliga during his playing career.
His managing career includes a spell at Berliner AK The DFB-Pokal is considered the second-most important club title in German football after the Bundesliga championship.
In the final Eintracht Frankfurt defeated MSV Duisburg 1—0, thereby defending their title from the previous season. It was Frankfurt's second victory in the cup.
Participating clubs The following teams qualified for the first round. Bundesliga Nord was the second-highest level of the German football league system in the north of Germany from its introduction in until the formation of the single-division 2.
Overview The league was established in to reduce the number of second divisions in Germany from five to two and thereby allow direct promotion to the league winners.
Along with the foundation of the 2. Bundesliga Nord, formed from clubs of the three former Regionalligas of Nord, Berlin and West, went the foundation of the 2.
Bundesliga Süd, which was created from clubs of the other two Regionalligas, Süd and Südwest. The league was created from twelve clubs from the West, seven from the North and one from Berlin, reflecting the playing strength of the old Regionalligas.
The winner of the 2. Bundesliga Nord was directly promoted to the Bundesliga, the runners-up It began on 6 August and ended on 30 May In the final FC Köln defeated Hertha Berlin 1—0 in a replay after the first game ended in a draw after minutes.
It was the only DFB-Pokal final ever to be replayed. It began on 1 August and ended on 26 June In the final Hamburg defeated Kaiserslautern 2—0.
FC Köln II 1. The club, one of the largest football clubs in the country, has a strong youth department which has developed a number of international players, not just for Germany and having won two national youth championships.
In , the club moved to a new ground, Siebenendenweg, now called Ernst-Reuter-Sportfeld, away from the Tempelhofer Feld, where it was never entirely happy.
It was from this union, H Mehmet Aydin "ruck-zuck" zu neun Treffern in German Fussball. Der Tagesspiegel in German. Retrieved 4 January Goldmann, Sven 29 December Official Bulletin in German.
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Member feedback about Berlin-Liga: Member feedback about —65 Regionalliga: Eintracht Mahlsdorf topic Eintracht Mahlsdorf is a German football club from the eastern city district of Mahlsdorf in Berlin.
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The city is known for its festivals, diverse architecture, nightlife, contemporary arts. All German place names ending on -ow, -itz and -in, since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city.
It is therefore a canting arm, the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in and Köpenick in , although these areas did not join Berlin until , the central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns.
Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a document, is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, and profited from the right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod.
In , they formed an alliance with a common external policy, in Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until Bundesliga table at the end of the —13 season, Hertha BSC was founded in , and was a founding member of the German Football Association in Leipzig in The team won the German championship in and , since , Herthas stadium has been the Olympiastadion.
The name Hertha is a variation on Nerthus referring to fertility goddess from Germanic mythology, Hertha performed consistently well on the field, including a win in the first Berlin championship final in In May , Hertha won a match against Southend United.
However, their success was not matched financially and in the staunchly working-class Hertha merged with the well-heeled club Berliner Sport-Club to form Hertha Berliner Sport-Club.
The new team continued to enjoy success in the Oberliga Berlin-Brandenburg. Notwithstanding, Hertha emerged as the Germanys second most successful team during the inter-war years, German football was re-organized under the Third Reich in into 16 top-flight divisions, which saw Hertha playing in the Gauliga Berlin-Brandenburg.
The club continued to enjoy success within their division, regularly finishing in the half of the table. It faded from prominence, however, unable to advance out of the rounds of the national championship rounds.
Politically, the club was overhauled under Hitler, with Hans Pfeifer, after World War II, occupying Allied authorities banned most organizations in Germany, including sports and football clubs.
Hertha was re-formed late in as SG Gesundbrunnen and resumed play in the Oberliga Berlin — Gruppe C, by the end of , it had re-claimed their identity as Hertha BSC and earned a return to the top-flight.
Tensions between the western Allies and the Soviets occupying various sectors of the city, and the developing Cold War, led to chaotic conditions for football in the capital.
Hertha was banned from playing against East German teams in the —50 season after taking on several players, a number of sides from the eastern half of the city were forced from the Oberliga Berlin to the newly established DDR-Liga beginning with the —51 season.
Through the s, a rivalry developed with Tennis Borussia Berlin. A proposal for a merger between the two clubs in was resoundingly rejected, with three of the members voting in favour.
Nazi Germany — Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from to , when Germany was governed by a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party.
Under Hitlers rule, Germany was transformed into a fascist state in which the Nazi Party took totalitarian control over all aspects of life.
The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from to , the period is also known under the names the Third Reich and the National Socialist Period.
The Nazi Party then began to eliminate all opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August , and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the powers and offices of the Chancellery, a national referendum held 19 August confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany.
All power was centralised in Hitlers person, and his word became above all laws, the government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitlers favour.
In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending, extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen.
The return to economic stability boosted the regimes popularity, racism, especially antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime. The Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the purest branch of the Aryan race, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were murdered in the Holocaust.
Opposition to Hitlers rule was ruthlessly suppressed, members of the liberal, socialist, and communist opposition were killed, imprisoned, or exiled.
The Christian churches were also oppressed, with many leaders imprisoned, education focused on racial biology, population policy, and fitness for military service.
Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed, recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, and the Summer Olympics showcased the Third Reich on the international stage.
Propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others.
Beginning in the late s, Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands and it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in and Hitler made a pact with Joseph Stalin and invaded Poland in September In alliance with Italy and smaller Axis powers, Germany conquered most of Europe by , reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas, and a German administration was established in what was left of Poland.
Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in , the tide gradually turned against the Nazis, who suffered major military defeats in FC Bayern was founded in by 11 football players, led by Franz John, although Bayern won its first national championship in , the club was not selected for the Bundesliga at its inception in Since the formation of the Bundesliga, Bayern has been the dominant club in German football with 26 titles and has won 8 of the last 12 titles and they have traditional local rivalries with Munich and 1.
FC Nürnberg, as well as with Borussia Dortmund since the mids, since the beginning of the —06 season, Bayern has played its home games at the Allianz Arena.
Previously the team had played at Munichs Olympiastadion for 33 years, the team colours are red and white, and the team crest shows the white and blue flag of Bavaria.
In terms of revenue, Bayern Munich is the biggest sports club in Germany, as of November , Bayern has over , members.
There are more than 4, officially-registered fan clubs with over , members, the club has other departments for chess, handball, basketball, gymnastics, bowling, table tennis and senior football with more than 1, active members.
Within a few months, Bayern achieved high-scoring victories against all rivals, including a 15—0 win against FC Nordstern. In the following years, the club won some trophies and in —11 Bayern joined the newly founded Kreisliga.
The club won league in its first year, but did not win it again until the beginning of World War I in In the years after the war, Bayern won several regional competitions before winning its first South German championship in , an achievement repeated two years later.
Its first national title was gained in , when coach Richard Little Dombi Kohn led the team to the German championship by defeating Eintracht Frankfurt 2—0 in the final, the advent of Nazism put an abrupt end to Bayerns development.
Club president Kurt Landauer and the coach, both of whom were Jewish, left the country, many others in the club were also purged. Bayern was taunted as the Jews club, while local rival Munich gained much support, josef Sauter, who was inaugurated , was the only NSDAP member as president.
As some Bayern players greeted Landauer, who was watching a friendly in Switzerland lead to continued discrimination, Bayern was also affected by the ruling that football players had to be full amateurs again.
In the following years, Bayern could not sustain its role of contender for the national title, after the war, Bayern became a member of the Oberliga Süd, the southern conference of the German first division, which was split five ways at that time.
Bundesliga — The Bundesliga, is a professional association football league in Germany and the football league with the highest average stadium attendance worldwide.
At the top of the German football league system, the Bundesliga is Germanys primary football competition, the Bundesliga is contested by 18 teams and operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the 2.
Seasons run from August to May, most games are played on Saturdays and Sundays, with a few games played on weekdays. A total of 54 clubs have competed in the Bundesliga since its founding, FC Bayern Munich has won the Bundesliga the most, winning the title 25 times.
The Bundesliga was founded in in Dortmund and the first season started in , the structure and organisation of the Bundesliga along with Germanys other football leagues have undergone frequent changes right up to the present day.
Bundesliga, and, below that, the 2, Bundesliga, which has been the second tier of German football since Below the level of the 3, Liga, leagues are generally subdivided on a regional basis.
For example, the Regionalligen are currently made up of Nord, Nordost, Süd, below this are thirteen parallel divisions, most of which are called Oberligen which represent federal states or large urban and geographical areas.
The levels below the Oberligen differ between the local areas, the league structure has changed frequently and typically reflects the degree of participation in the sport in various parts of the country.
In the early s, changes were driven by the reunification of Germany, every team in the two Bundesligen must have a licence to play in the league, or else they are relegated into the regional leagues.
To obtain a licence, teams must be healthy and meet certain standards of conduct as organisations. As in other leagues, there are significant benefits to being in the top division.
Bundesliga teams draw significantly greater levels of fan support, average attendance in the first league is 42, per game — more than twice the average of the 2.
Greater exposure through television and higher attendance levels helps 1, Bundesliga teams attract the most lucrative sponsorships. Bundesliga teams develop substantial financial muscle through the combination of television and gate revenues, sponsorships and this allows them to attract and retain skilled players from domestic and international sources and to construct first-class stadium facilities.
Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between , the year the Truman Doctrine was announced, and , the year the Soviet Union collapsed.
The term cold is used there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, although there were major regional wars, known as proxy wars, supported by the two sides.
In opposition stood the West, dominantly democratic and capitalist with a free press, a small neutral bloc arose with the Non-Aligned Movement, it sought good relations with both sides.
The two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat, but they were armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war.
The first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in , the Berlin Blockade was the first major crisis of the Cold War.
Meanwhile, the Hungarian Revolution of was stopped by the Soviets, the expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of , and the Cuban Missile Crisis of The early s were another period of elevated tension, with the Soviet downing of Korean Air Lines Flight , the United States increased diplomatic, military, and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was already suffering from economic stagnation.
In the mids, the new Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the reforms of perestroika and glasnost. Pressures for national independence grew stronger in Eastern Europe, especially Poland, Gorbachev meanwhile refused to use Soviet troops to bolster the faltering Warsaw Pact regimes as had occurred in the past.
The result in was a wave of revolutions that peacefully overthrew all of the communist regimes of Central, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union itself lost control and was banned following an abortive coup attempt in August The United States remained as the only superpower.
The Cold War and its events have left a significant legacy and it is often referred to in popular culture, especially in media featuring themes of espionage and the threat of nuclear warfare.
The club plays in the Bundesliga, the top tier of the German football league system, the club was founded in by employees of the German pharmaceutical company Bayer, whose headquarters are in Leverkusen and from which the club draws its name.
In the football department was separated from the club and is now a separate entity formally called Bayer 04 Leverkusen GmbH. The company agreed to support the initiative, and on 1 July Turn- und Spielverein Bayer 04 Leverkusen was founded, on 31 May , a separate football department was formed within the club.
In the culture of sports in Germany at the time, there was significant animosity between gymnasts and other types of athletes, SV Bayer 04 Leverkusen took with them the clubs traditional colours of red and black, with the gymnasts adopting blue and yellow.
Through this period, and into the s, SV Bayer 04 Leverkusen played third, in , they earned promotion to the second highest class of play of the period.
That was also the year that the club wore the familiar Bayer cross for the first time and they made their first appearance in upper league play in , in the Oberliga West and played there until , after which they were relegated.
SV Bayer 04 Leverkusen would not return to the leagues until , just one season before the formation of Germanys new professional league. The next year saw the club in the Regionalliga West, tier II, SV Bayer 04 Leverkusen made something of a breakthrough in by winning the division title, but was unable to advance through the playoff round to the first division.
The club was relegated again in , but made a return to what was now called the 2. Bundesliga after just one season spent in the third division, four years later, the club handily secured a place in the Bundesliga to start to play there in the —80 season.
By the mids, SV Bayer 04 Leverkusen had played its way into the half of the league table and was well-established there by the end of the decade.
It was during time, in , that the two-halves of the club that had parted ways over a half century earlier were re-united as TSV Bayer 04 Leverkusen e.
The new club took red and white as its colours, in addition to becoming an established Bundesliga side, the club earned its first honours with a dramatic win in the UEFA Cup.
Down 0—3 to Espanyol after the first leg of the final, Bayer Leverkusen drew even in the match and then captured the title on penalty kicks. That same year, long-time Bayer Leverkusen executive Reiner Calmund became the manager of the club.
This is regarded as one of the most important moves in the history, as Calmund ushered in a decade. Dynamo Dresden — Sportgemeinschaft Dynamo Dresden e.
It was founded on 12 April , as an affiliated with the East German police. After the reunification of Germany, Dynamo played four seasons in the top division Bundesliga, the club will begin the —17 season in the 2.
The city of Dresden had played a significant part in German football before, after the war the occupying Allied authorities dissolved organizations across the country, including sports and football clubs like SC, as part of the process of denazification.
After a riot at the final of the East German championship, the city needed a new, ideologically safe representative, and a new football club as founded, as part of SG Deutsche Volkspolizei Dresden.
A team was assembled with players delegated from 11 other police-affiliated clubs, in April , the central sports society SV Dynamo was founded, to which VP Dresden were affiliated, taking the name of SG Dynamo Dresden.
Shortly after this the club claimed its first East German title and this success, though, proved to be the clubs undoing.
Erich Mielke, head of the Stasi, of which Dynamo were now part, was unhappy that Dresden was enjoying footballing success, while the capital, East Berlin, in , Dynamos team were moved to Berlin, to form Dynamo Berlin.
Dynamo Dresden were left with a composed of youth and reserve players. They began to climb the leagues, though, and by they were back in the DDR-Oberliga and they recovered equally well from another relegation in , and remained in the Oberliga from until its dissolution in Dynamo Dresden were one of these, although retained the title of Sportgemeinschaft.
During the s, Dynamo established themselves as one of the top teams in East Germany and they won five league titles, and two cups.
FC Magdeburg for domination of the league, and became the most popular the side in the country, regularly drawing crowds of 25,, around three times what other clubs were attracting.
During this time Dynamo came up against West German opposition for the first time, on three occasions they were eliminated by English side Liverpool, twice in the UEFA Cup and once in the European Cup, and each time Liverpool went on to win the competition.
This changed in the lates and 80s though, as players, BFC won ten consecutive titles, from to From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Der Tagesspiegel in German. Retrieved 4 January Clubs Introduction Promotion to 2. Bundesliga Promotion to Bundesliga Top scorers. Retrieved from " https: Defunct football clubs in Germany Defunct football clubs in Berlin Association football clubs established in Association football clubs disestablished in establishments in Germany disestablishments in Germany Football clubs in Germany.
Modern boots are cut slightly below the ankles, as opposed to the high-ankled boots used in former times, studs may be either moulded directly to the sole or be detachable, normally by means of a screw thread 2.
Both German teams advanced to the second round anyway, the GDR team was eliminated there, while the DFB team eventually went on to win the tournament 3.
A proposal for a merger between the two clubs in was resoundingly rejected, with three of the members voting in favour 5. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in , the tide gradually turned against the Nazis, who suffered major military defeats in 6.
In the following years, Bayern could not sustain its role of contender for the national title, after the war, Bayern became a member of the Oberliga Süd, the southern conference of the German first division, which was split five ways at that time 7.
Bundesliga teams develop substantial financial muscle through the combination of television and gate revenues, sponsorships and this allows them to attract and retain skilled players from domestic and international sources and to construct first-class stadium facilities 8.
The Cold War and its events have left a significant legacy and it is often referred to in popular culture, especially in media featuring themes of espionage and the threat of nuclear warfare 9.
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